Posted tagged ‘scientific computing’

Beyond Jupyter: what’s in a notebook?

September 3, 2015

Yesterday I participated (as a visitor) in the kickoff meeting for OpenDreamKit, where one recurrent topic of discussion was notebooks, both Jupyter and Sage, including the question if they could be brought together. This reminded me of a recent blog post by Kirill Pomogajko entitled “Why I don’t like Jupyter”. And it reminded me of my own long-term project of integrating Jupyter with my ActivePapers system for reproducible research. That’s three reasons for writing down my thoughts about notebooks and their role(s) in computational research, so here we go.

One key observation is in Gaël Varoquaux’s comment on Kirill’s blog post: using Jupyter for doing science creates a lock-in, because all collaborators on a project must agree on using Jupyter. There is no other tool that can be used productively for working with notebooks. It’s a case of “wordization”: digital content is taken hostage by a tool that defines a storage format for its own convenience without much consideration for other tools, be they competing or complementary. Wordization not only restricts the users’ freedom to work with their data, but also creates headaches for the future. A data format defined by a tool can easily become unusable as the tool evolves and introduces incompatibilities, or of course if it disappears. In the case of Jupyter, its developers have always provided upgrade paths for notebooks between versions, but at some time this is bound to create trouble. Bugs are a fact of life, and I don’t expect that the version-2-compatibility-feature will get much testing in Jupyter version 23. To make it worse, a Jupyter notebook can depend on third-party code that implements embedded widgets. This is one of the reasons why I don’t use Jupyter for my research, although I am a big fan of using it for teaching. The other reason is that I cannot usefully link a notebook to other relevant information, such as code and data dependencies. Jupyter doesn’t provide any functionality for this, and they are hard to implement externally exactly because of wordization.

Wordization is often associated with evil intentions of market dominance, as they are regularly assumed for a company like Microsoft. But I believe that the fundamental cause is the obsession with tools over content that has driven the computing industry for many years. The tool aspects of a piece of software, such as its feature list and its user interface, are immediately visible. On the contrary, its data model attracts attention only by a few specialists, if at all. Users feel the consequences of bad (or absent) data model design through the symptoms of wordization, in particular lock-in, but rarely understand where it comes from. Interestingly, this problem was also mentioned yesterday at the OpenDreamKit meeting, by Michael Kohlhase who discussed the digital representation of mathematical knowledge and the difficulty of exchanging it between different software tools. I have written earlier about another aspect, the representation of scientific models in computational science, which illustrates the extreme case of tools having absorbed scientific content to the point that its users don’t even realize that something is missing.

Back to notebooks. Let’s forget about tools for the moment and consider the question of what a notebook actually is, as a digital document. I think that notebooks are trying to be two different things, and that many of the problems we have with them come from this ambiguity. One role of notebooks is the documentation of computational work as a narrative with direct access to the data. This is why people publish notebooks. The other role is as a protocol of interactive explorative work, i.e. the computational scientist’s equivalent of a lab notebook. The two roles are not completely unrelated, but they still significatively different.

To see the difference, look at how experimental scientists worked in the good old days of pencil, paper, and the printing press. As experiments were done, all the relevant information (preparation, results, …) was written down, immediately, with a time stamp, in the lab notebook. Like a bank ledger, a lab notebook is an immutable protocol of what happened. You don’t go back and change earlier entries, that would even be considered fraud. You just add information at the end. Of course, the resulting protocol is not a good way to communicate one’s findings. Therefore they are distilled and written up in a separate narrative, which surrounds a description of the work and its most important results by a motivating introduction and summarizing conclusions. This is the classic scientific article.

Today’s computational notebooks are trying to be both protocol and narrative, and pretend that there is a fluent transition between them. One unfortunate consequence is that computational protocols disappear as they are edited to become narratives. This could be alleviated by keeping notebooks under version control, but I have yet to see good versioning support in any notebook-type tool. But, fundamentally, today’s notebook tools don’t encourage keeping a protocol. They encourage frequent changes to the code and the results, keeping only the latest version. As editors for narratives, notebook tools are also far from ideal because they encourage interactive execution of small code snippets, making it easy to lose track of what was actually executed and in what order. In Jupyter, the only way to ensure a coherent narrative is to (1) restart the kernel and (2) re-execute all cells. There is not even a single menu entry for this operation. Actually, I wonder how many Jupyter users are aware that they must restart the kernel before re-executing all the cells if they want to ensure reproducibility.

With all that said, here is my current idea of what a notebook should look like at the bit level. A notebook data model should have two distinct entries, one for a protocol and one for a narrative. The protocol entry is a sequence of code cells and results, as they were executed since the start of the computation (for Jupyter, that means the last kernel restart). The narrative is a user-edited sequence of code cells, documentation cells, and results. The actual cell contents could well be shared between the two views: store each cell with a unique ID, and make the protocol and the narrative simple lists of IDs. The representation of code and documentation cells in such a data model is straightforward, though there’s a huge potential for bikeshedding in defining the details. The representation of results is much more difficult if you want to support more than plain text output. In the long run, it will be inevitable to define clear data models for every type of display widget, which is a lot of work.

From the tool point of view, the current Jupyter interface could be complemented by a non-editable protocol view. I’d also like to see a single command (menu/keyboard) for the “clean slate” operation: save the current state as a snapshot (or commit it directly to version control), restart the kernel, and re-initialize the protocol to an empty list. But what really matters to me is the data model. Contrary to the current one implemented in Jupyter, the one outlined above could be integrated into workflow management and archivation tools, such as my own ActivePapers. We’d probably see an Emacs mode for working with it as well. Plus pretty-printing tools, analysis tools, etc. We’d see an ecosystem of tools working with notebooks. A Dream of Openness.

Advertisements

Another look at Julia

June 18, 2015

Three years ago, I first looked at the then-very-new language Julia. Back then, I concluded that there were many interesting features, but also regretted too much bad Matlab influence in the array handling.

A hands-on Julia tutorial in my neighborhood was a good occasion to take another look at this language, which has evolved quite a bit since 2012, and continues to evolve rapidly. The tutorial taught by David Sanders was an excellent introduction, and his notebooks should even be good for self-teaching. If you already have some experience in computational science, and are interested in trying Julia out on small practical applications, have a look at them.

The good news is that Julia has much improved over the years, not only by being more complete (in particular in terms of libraries), but also through changes in the language itself. More changes are about to happen with version~0.4 which is currently under development. The changes being discussed include the array behavior that I criticized three years ago. It’s good to see references to APL in this discussion. I still believe that when it comes to arrays, APL and its successors are an excellent reference. It’s also good to see that the Julia developers take the time to improve their language, rather than rushing towards a 1.0 release.

Due to David’s tutorial, this time my contact with Julia was much more practical, working on realistic problems. This was a good occasion to appreciate many nice features of the language. Julia has taken many good features from both Lisp and APL, and combined them seamlessly into a language that, in spite of some warts, is overall a pleasure to use. A major aspect of Julia’s Lisp heritage is the built-in metaprogramming support. Metaprogramming has always been difficult to grasp, which was clear as well during the tutorial. It isn’t obvious at all what kind of problem it helps to solve. But everyone who has used a language with good metaprogramming support doesn’t want to go back.

A distinctive feature of Julia is that it occupies a corner of the programming language universe that was almost empty until now. In scientific computing, we have traditionally had two major categories of languages. “Low-level” languages such as Fortran, C, and C++, are close to the machine level: data types reflect those directly handled by today’s processors, memory management is explicit and thus left to the programmer. “High-level” languages such as Python or Mathematica present a more abstract view of computing in which resources are managed automatically and the data types and their operations are as close as possible to the mathematical concepts of arithmetic. High-level languages are typically interpreted or JIT-compiled, whereas low-level languages require an explicit compilation step, but this is not so much a feature of the language as of their age and implementation.

Julia is resolutely modern in opting for modern code transformation techniques, in particular under-the-hood JIT compilation, making it both fully compiled and fully interactive. In terms of the more fundamental differences between “low-level” and “high-level”, Julia chooses an unconventional approach: automatic memory management, but data types at the machine level.

As an illustration, consider integer handling. Julia’s default integers are the same as C’s: optimal machine-size signed integers with no overflow checks on arithmetic. The result of 10^50 is -5376172055173529600, for example. This is the best choice for performance, but it should be clear that it can easily create bugs. Traditional high-level languages use unlimited integers by default, eventually offering machine-size integers as a optimization option for experienced programmers. Julia does have a BigInt type, but using it requires a careful insertion of big(...) in many places. It’s there if you absolutely need it, but you are expected to use machine-sized integers most of the time.

As a consequence, Julia is a power tool for experienced scientific programmers who are aware of the traps and the techniques to avoid falling into them. Julia is not a language suitable for beginners or occasional users of scientific programming, because such inexperienced scientists need more of a safety net than Julia provides. Neither is Julia a prototyping language for trying out new ideas, because when concentrating on the science you also need a safety net that protects you from the traps of machine-level abstractions. In Julia, you have to design your own safety net, and you also have to verify that it is strong enough for your needs.

Perhaps the biggest problem with Julia is that this is not obvious at first glance. Julia comes with all the nice interactive tools for rapid development and interactive data analysis, in particular the IJulia notebook which is basically the same as the now-famous IPython/Jupyter notebook. At a first glance, Julia looks like a traditional high-level language. A strong point of David’s Julia tutorial is that it points out right from the start that Julia is different. Whenever a choice must be made between run-time efficiency and simplicity, clarity, or correctness, Julia always chooses efficiency. The least important consequence is surprising error messages that make sense only with a basic understanding of how the compiler works. The worst consequence is that inexperienced users are easily induced to write unsafe code. There are nice testing tools, in particular FactCheck which looks very nice, but scientists are notoriously unaware of the need of testing.

The worst design decision I see in Julia is the explicit platform dependence of the language: the default integer size is either 32 or 64 bits, depending on the underlying platform. This default size is used in particular for integer constants. As a consequence, a Julia program does in general not have a single well-defined result, but two distinct results. This means that programs must be tested on two different architectures, which is hard to do even for experienced programmers. Given the ongoing very visible debate about the (non-)reproducibility of computational research, I cannot understand how anyone can make such a decision today. Of course I do understand the performance advantage that results from this choice, but this clearly goes to far for my taste. If I ever use Julia for my research, I’ll start each source code file with @assert WORD_SIZE==64 just to make sure that everyone knows what kind of machine I tested my code on.

As for the surprising but not dangerous features that can probably only be explained by convenience for the compiler, there is first of all the impossibility to redefine a data type without clearing the workspace first – and that means losing your whole session. It’s a bit of a pain for interactive development, in particular in IJulia notebooks. Another oddity is the const declaration, which makes a variable to which you can assign new values as often as you like, as long as the type remains the same. It’s more a typed variable declaration than the constant suggested by the name.

Finally, there is another point where I think the design for speed has gone too far. The choice of machine-size integers turns into something completely useless (in my opinion) when it comes to rational arithmetic. Julia lets you create fractions by writing 3//2 etc., but the result is a fraction whose nominator and denominator are machine-size integers. Rational arithmetic has the well-known performance and memory problem of denominators growing with each additional operation. With machine-size integers, rational arithmetic rapidly crashes or returns wrong results. Given that the primary application of rationals is unlimited precision arithmetic, I don’t see a practical use for anything but Rational{BigInt}.

In the end, Julia leaves me with a feeling of a lost opportunity. My ideal software development environment for computational science would support the whole life cycle of computational methods, starting from prototyping and ending with platform-specific optimizations. As code is progressively optimized based on profiling information, each version would be used as a reference to test the next optimization level. In terms of fundamental language design, Julia seems to have everything required for such an approach. However, the default choice of fast-and-unsafe operations almost forces programmers into premature optimization. Like in the traditional high-/low-level language world, computational science will require two distinct languages, a safe and a fast one.

Why bitwise reproducibility matters

January 7, 2015

While reading the final report of the reproducibility workshop at XSEDE14, I noticed a statement that I encounter frequently in discussions about reproducible research:

“One general consensus was that bitwise reproducibility is often an unrealistic expectation”

In the interest of clarity, let me start by pointing out that within the systematic terminology that I am trying to adopt (see this post for an explanation), I will write “bitwise replicability” from now on, as the problem falls into the technical domain (getting the same result from running the same program on the same data) rather than into the scientific one (verifying a result with similar but not identical methods and tools).

The particularity of bitwise replicability is that is almost always brushed aside as “unrealistic”, which prevents any discussion about its possible importance in computational science. The main point of this post is to explain why I consider bitwise replicability important, but first of all I need to get the label “unrealistic” out of the way.

“Unrealistic” means more or less “possible in principle but impossible given various real-life contraints”, and therefore the term should always be qualified by listing the constraints that make something impossible. In the context of bitwise replicability, which always refers to floating-point computations, the main constraint is that floating-point arithmetic is incompletely specified in most of today’s programming languages, and that whatever specification there is is incompletely implemented in many of today’s compilers. This is a valid reason for proclaiming bitwise replicability unrealistic for a short-term research project, but it is not an insurmountable barrier on a longer time scale. All we need are tighter specifications and implementations that respect them. That’s a lot of work, but not a technical challenge. We know how to do it, but we are not (yet) willing to invest the effort to make it happen.

The main reason why I consider bitwise replicability important is software testing. No matter what precise approach is used for testing, it always involves comparing results of computations, either to a known good result, or to the result of another, presumably more reliable, computation. For any application of computing other than number crunching, comparing results means testing for equality, at the bit level. The results are equal or they aren’t. If they aren’t, there’s a reason. You have to figure out what that reason is, and fix the problem.

If you accept the idea that floating-point operations are only approximate, the notion of a computation having one and only one result disappears, and testing becomes impossible. If two computations lead to similar but slightly different results, how do you decide if this is due to a bug or to some “inevitable” fuzziness of floating-point arithmetic? The answer is that you can’t. If you accept that bitwise replicability is not possible, you also accept that rigorous software testing is not possible. For some illustrations of this problem, and some interesting discussion around them, see this post on the Software Carpentry blog.

The most common counterargument is that numerical methods are only approximate, that floating-point arithmetic is approximate as well, and that the main source of error comes from these two sources. That may or may not be true in any specific situation, as it really depends on what you are computing. But my point is that this statement can only be true if you assume that the implementation of your method contains no mistakes. The amount of error introduced by a bug in the code is completely unbounded. And even if it’s small for some particular test run, it can be very large elsewhere. There is not much point in worrying about the error in an approximate numerical method unless you have some confidence in your code actually implementing this method correctly.

In fact, the common counterargument discussed above conflates several sources of error, which can and should be discussed and analyzed separately. A typical numerical computation is the result of several steps, starting from a mathematical model that takes the form of algebraic or differential equations:

  1. Construct a computable approximation1 to the original equations, using techniques such as discretization of continuous quantities.
  2. Replace real-numbers by floating-point numbers.
  3. Implement the floating-point version in software.

The errors introduced in the first step are the subject of numerical analysis, a well-established domain of applied mathematics. They are well understood for most commonly employed numerical methods. The errors introduced in the second step are rarely discussed explicitly, outside of a small circle of researchers interested in the peculiarities of floating-point arithmetic. The third step should not introduce any errors, and that should be verified by testing. But uncoupling steps 2 and 3 is possible only if our software tools guarantee bitwise replicability.

So why don’t today’s tools permit this? The reason is a mixture of widespread ignorance about floating-point arithmetic and the desire to get maximum performance. Both come into play in step 2, which is approximating discrete equations for real numbers by discrete equations for floating-point numbers. Most scientific programmers are unaware that this is an approximation that they should understand and control. They just type their real-number equation into a program and expect the computer to handle it somehow. Compiler writers and language specification authors take advantage of this ignorance and declare this step their business, profiting from the many optimization possibilities it offers.

The optimization opportunities come from the fact that a typical real-number equation has a large number of a priori equally plausible floating-point number approximations. Many of the identities for real numbers do not apply to floating-point numbers, for example associativity of addition and multiplication. Where the real-number equation says a+b+c, there are three floating-point approximations: (a+b)+c, a+(b+c), and (a+c)+b. For more complex equations, the number of variants quickly becomes important. The results of these variants are not the same, but which one to choose? The choice should be made after a careful analysis of the relative precision and performance of each variant. There should be tool support to help with this. But what happens in practice, most of the time, is that the choice is made by the compiler, which goes exclusively for performance. Since every compiler optimizes differently, the same program source code yields different results on different platforms. And that’s why we don’t have bitwise replicability.

To prevent any misunderstanding: I am not saying that production-level compiled code needs to ensure bitwise reproducibility across machines. It’s OK to have compiler optimization options that introduce platform-specific approximations. But it should be possible to reproduce one unique result identically on all platforms. This result is then the reference against which additional “lossy” optimizations can be tested.

Footnotes:

1 I am using the term “computable approximation” somewhat vaguely here. While the original continuous-variable equations are almost always non-computable, and the numerical approximations are mostly computable, there are exceptions on both sides. The main focus of numerical analysis is not computability in the strict sense of computability theory, but “practical” computability that has the subsequent transformation to floating-point operations in mind.

The state of NumPy

September 12, 2014

The release of NumPy 1.9 a few days ago was a bit of a revelation for me. For the first time in the combined history of NumPy and its predecessor Numeric, a new release broke my own code so severely thatI don’t see any obvious way to fix it, given the limited means I can dedicate to software maintenance. And that makes me wonder for which scientific uses today’s Python ecosystem can still be recommended, since the lack of means for code maintenance is a chronic and endemic problem in science.

I’ll start with a historical review, for which I am particularly well placed as one of the oldtimers in the community: I was a founding member of the Matrix-SIG, a small group of scientists who in 1995 set out to use the still young Python language for computational science, starting with the design and implementation of a module called Numeric. Back then Python was a minority language in a field dominated by Fortran. The number of users started to grow seriously from 2000, to the point of now being a well-recognized and respected community that spans all domains of scientific research and holds several
conferences per year across the globe. The combination of technological change and the needs of new users has caused regular changes in the code base, which has grown as significantly as the user base: the first releases were small packages written and maintained by a single person (Jim Hugunin, who later became famous for Jython and IronPython), whereas today’s NumPy is a complex beast maintained by a team.

My oldest published Python packages, ScientificPython and MMTK, go back to 1997 and are still widely used. They underwent a single major code reorganization, from module collections to packages when Python 1.5 introduced the package system. Other than that, most of the changes to the code base were implementations of new features and the inevitable bug fixes. The two main dependencies of my code, NumPy and Python itself, did sometimes introduce incompatible changes (by design or as consequences of bug fixes) that required changes on my own code base, but they were surprisingly minor and never required more than about a day of work.

However, I now realize that I have simply been lucky. While Python and its standard library have indeed been very stable (not counting the transition to Python 3), NumPy has introduced incompatible changes with almost every new version over the last years. None of them ever touched functionalities that I was using, so I barely noticed them when looking at each new version’s release notes. That changed with release 1.9, which removes the compatbility layer with the old Numeric package, on which all of my code relies because of its early origins.

Backwards-incompatible changes are of course nothing exceptional in the computing world. User needs change, new ideas permit improvements, but existing APIs often prevent a clean or efficient implementation of new features or fundamental code redesigns. This is particularly true for APIs that are not the result of careful design, but of organic growth, which is the case for almost all scientific software. As a result, there is always a tension between improving a piece of software and keeping it compatible with code that depends on it. Several strategies have emerged to deal with, depending on the priorities of each community. The point I want to make in this post is that NumPy has made a bad choice, for several reasons.

The NumPy attitude can be summarized as “introduce incompatible changes slowly but continuously”. Every change goes through several stages. First, the intention of an upcoming changes is announced. Next, deprecation warnings are added in the code, which are printed when code relying on the soon-to-disappear feature is executed. Finally, the change becomes effective. Sometimes changes are made in several steps to ease the transition. A good example from the 1.9 release notes is this:

In NumPy 1.8, the diagonal and diag functions returned readonly copies, in NumPy 1.9 they return readonly views, and in 1.10 they
will return writeable views.

The idea behind this approach to change is that client code that depends on NumPy is expected to be adapted continuously. The early warnings and the slow but regular rythm of change help developers of client code to keep up with NumPy.

The main problem with this attitude is that it works only under the assumption that client code is actively maintained. In scientific computing, that’s not a reasonable assumption to make. Anyone who has followed the discussions about the scientific software crisis and the lack of reproduciblity in computational science should be well aware of this point that is frequently made. Much if not most scientific code is written by individuals or small teams for a specific study and then modified only as much as strictly required. One step up on the maintenance ladder, there is scientific code that is published and maintained by computational scientists as a side activity, without any significant means attributed to software development, usually because the work is not sufficiently valued by funding agencies. This is the category that my own libraries belong to. Of course the most visible software packages are those that are actively maintained by a sufficiently strong community, but I doubt they are representative for computational science as a whole.

A secondary problem with the “slow continuous change” philosophy is that client code becomes hard to read and understand. If you get a Python script, say as a reviewer for a submitted article, and see “import numpy”, you don’t know which version of numpy the authors had in mind. If that script calls array.diag() and modifies the return value, does it expect to modify a copy or a view? The result is very different, but there is no way to tell. It is possible, even quite probable, that the code would execute fine with both NumPy 1.8 and the upcoming NumPy 1.10, but yield different results.

Given the importance of NumPy in the scientific Python ecosystem – the majority of scientific libraries and applications depends on it -, I consider its lack of stability alarming. I would much prefer the NumPy developers to adopt the attitude to change taken by the Python language itself: accumulate ideas for incompatible changes, and apply them in a new version that is clearly labelled and announced as incompatible. Everyone in the Python community knows that there are important differences between Python 2 and Python 3. There’s a good chance that a scientist publishing a Python script will clearly say if it’s for Python 2 or Python 3, but even if not, the answer is often evident from looking at the code, because at least some of the many differences will be visible.

As for my initial question for which scientific uses today’s Python ecosystem can still be recommended, I hesitate to provide an answer. Today’s scientific Python ecosystem is not stable enough for use in small-scale science, in my opinion, although it remains an excellent choice for big communities that can somehow find the resources to maintain their code. What makes me hesitate to recommend not using Python is that there is no better alternative. The only widely used scientific programming language that can be considered stable, but anyone who has used Python is unlikely to be willing to switch to an environment with tedious edit-compile-run cycles.

One possible solution would be a long-time-support version of the core libraries of the Python ecosystem, maintained without any functional change by a separate development team. But that development team has be created and funded. Any volunteers?

Lessons from sixteen years of molecular simulation in Python

April 10, 2013

A while ago I was chatting with two users of my Molecular Modelling Toolkit (MMTK), a library for molecular simulations written in Python. One of them asked me what I would do differently if I were to write MMTK today. That’s an interesting question, but not the kind of question I can answer in a sentence or two, so I promised to write a blog post about this. Here it is.

First, a bit of history. The first version of MMTK was released about 16 years ago. I don’t have the exact data, but the first message on the MMTK mailing list, announcing MMTK release 1.0b2, is dated 29 May 1997. Back then Python 1.4 was the state of the art and Numerical Python was a young project that was just beginning to stabilize. MMTK was one of the first domain-specific scientific libraries written in Python, at a time when the scientific Python community was very small and its members were mostly considered cranks by their peers. MMTK was designed from the start as a Python library, with relatively small bits of C code for the time-critical stuff (mainly energy evaluation and MD integration), with NumPy arrays at the Python-C interface. This has since become one of the two main approaches to using Python in scientific computing, the other one being wrapper code around libraries written in C/C++ or Fortran.

So what would I do differently if I were to start writing MMTK today? Many things, for different reasons. Lets first get the obvious stuff out of the way: the Python ecosystem has evolved significantly since 1997, and of course I would use Python 3, and Cython instead of C for the time-critical parts. I would also adopt many of the conventions that the community has developed but which weren’t around in 1997. I might even be tempted to use bleeding-edge tools like Numba, although with hesitation: Numba is not only a moving target at this time, but also requires dependencies (I am thinking mostly of LLVM) which are big and non-trivial to install. One lesson I have learned in 16 years of scientific Python is that dependencies can cause more trouble than they are worth. It’s nice in theory to re-use existing tested code, but it also makes installation and deployment more cumbersome.

So far for changes in the Python ecosystem. What has changed as well, though at a slower pace, is the role of computation in science and in particular in molecular simulation. Back in 1997, there were a few molecular simulation ecosystems that operated almost in isolation. The big players were the CHARMM, AMBER, and GROMOS/GROMACS communities. Each of them had their own software, their own file formats, and their own force fields. Members of these communities would of course talk about science to each other, but not share any software or data. Developing new computational methods required a serious investment into one of these ecosystems. That was in fact my main motivation for developing MMTK: I figured that I would be more efficient (not to mention more satisfied) writing a new system from scratch using modern development tools than trying to get familiar with crufty Fortran code. But I adopted basically the same approach with MMTK: I created a new ecosystem without much regard to sharing code or data with the rest of the world. As an illustration, MMTK defines its own trajectory format which I still consider superior to what the rest of the world is doing, but which is undeniably hard to use without MMTK, given that the definition of a universe is stored as an executable Python expression. MMTK also encourages storing data as Python pickle files, which are even harder to deal with for other programs.

Today we are seeing a change in attitude in computational science that I am sure will soon reach the molecular simulation community as well. People are starting to realize that computational results have serious reliability problems. The most publicized case in the structural biology community was the retraction of a few important published protein structures following the discovery of a bug in the data processing software that lead to completely wrong final structures. This and similar events point to the urgent need for better validation of computational results. One aspect of validation is re-running the same computation with different tools. Another aspect is publishing both software and raw data, enabling other scientists to inspect them and check their validity. Technology for sharing scientific code and data exists today (have a look at Github, Bitbucket, and figshare, for example). But in molecular simulation, there are still important practical barriers to such validation attempts, in particular the use of program-specific and badly documented file formats. While MMTK’s file formats are documented, they are still program-specific and thus incompatible with the requirements of the future.

The sentence that I would like to write now is “If I were to rewrite MMTK today, I would use the exchange data formats accepted by the molecular simulation community”. But those formats don’t exist yet, although there are a few initiatives to develop them. My own contribution to this effort is the Mosaic data model and data formats – if you are interested in this subject, please have a look at it and send me your feedback. Mosaic will of course find its way into future versions of MMTK.

Finally, there are things I would do differently because the experience with MMTK has shown that a few initial design decisions were not the best ones. Number one is the absence of stable atom numbers. In MMTK, each atom and molecule is represented by a unique Python object, and there are ways to refer uniquely to everything by using Python expressions. But there is no such thing as a unique order of atoms that would assign a number to each one. Atoms do have numbers by which the low-level C code refers to them, but these numbers can be different every time you run a Python script. My original design goal was to discourage the use of numbers to refer to atoms, because this is an important source of mistakes if the simulated system undergoes changes. But every other molecular simulation program out there uses numbers to refer to atoms, so people are used to them. For interoperability with other programs, atom numbers are fundamental. There are ways to handle such situations, of course, but it’s a constant source of headaches.

The other design aspect that I would change if I were to rewrite MMTK today is the hierarchy of chemical objects. MMTK has Atoms, Groups, Molecules, and Complexes, plus specializations such as AminoAcidResidue (a special Group), PeptideChain (a special Molecule), and Protein (a special Complex). While all of these correspond to some chemical reality, the system is more complex than required for molecular simulation, leading in some situations to code that is bloated by irrelevant special cases. Today I’d go for just Atoms and Groups, with special features of specific kinds of groups indicated by attributes rather than specific classes.